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Who was Celie in color purple?


Celie is the main protagonist and narrator of Alice Walker’s novel The Color Purple. She is a poor, uneducated, abused, and oppressed African-American woman living in rural Georgia during the early 20th century. Throughout the novel, Celie undergoes significant growth and transformation as she finds her independence and voice.

Some quick facts about Celie:

  • Celie is the eldest daughter of a sharecropper.
  • She has little formal education and is illiterate at the start of the novel.
  • Celie is raped by a man known only as Alphonso (later revealed to be her stepfather) and gives birth to two children by him.
  • Alphonso takes Celie’s children away from her shortly after they are born.
  • Celie is forced to marry the abusive widower Albert, referred to as “Mister.”
  • She is oppressed by both Alphonso and Mister throughout her young life.
  • Over time, Celie befriends and finds support from the women in her life, including her husband’s mistress Shug Avery.
  • Celie eventually leaves her husband, discovers her own self-worth, and finds independence.

Celie’s Background

Celie grows up poor in the racially segregated American South. She is believed to be the daughter of a sharecropper, although it is later revealed that Alphonso is actually her stepfather. Celie has a difficult childhood – her mother is ill and dies when Celie is young, leaving her vulnerable to abuse from Alphonso.

Celie has little formal education or opportunities. She is pulled out of school by Alphonso by age 12 to take care of her younger siblings and do housework. She is also repeatedly raped by Alphonso starting around age 14, which results in the birth of two children. After each child is born, Alphonso takes them away from Celie, cruelly telling her that he killed them. In fact, he secretly gave the children up for adoption to a minister and his wife.

Marriage to Albert (Mister)

When Celie is just 14 years old, Alphonso offers her hand in marriage to Albert, a 30-something widower who is looking for someone to care for his children. Albert, referred to as “Mister” by Celie, is physically and emotionally abusive. He frequently beats and demeans Celie, viewing her more as a servant than a wife. However, Celie has no choice but to submit to the marriage, seeing it as her only opportunity to escape the repeated rapes by her stepfather.

Mister’s children, Harpo and Sofia, are also abusive and disrespectful to Celie. She withstands the abuse silently, believing she is unloved and undeserving of anything better. Mister also brings his mistress Shug Avery, a blues singer, to live in their home. Shug is initially rude and aloof to Celie as well.

Year Event in Celie’s Life
1910 Celie is born
1922 14 years old – First child with Alphonso born
1923 15 years old – Second child with Alphonso born
1923 Forced into marriage with Albert “Mister”
1924 Shug Avery moves into the house
1925 Harpo and Sofia marry
1927 Shug helps Celie find her voice
1929 Leaves Mister and moves to Tennessee
1930 Reunites with her children

Transformation and Independence

A major turning point comes for Celie when she begins her friendship with Shug Avery. Shug helps Celie develop her self-worth and sexuality. She encourages Celie to love and stand up for herself, teaching her that she is a beautiful, desirable woman who deserves more.

Under Shug’s guidance, Celie begins expressing herself by writing letters addressed to God. This allows her to tell her story openly for the first time. Celie’s letters evolve from compliant and resigned to angry and assertive over time, reflecting her inner transformation.

Shug also helps Celie find the courage to stand up to Mister and leave him. At the same time, Celie learns that Mister has been hiding letters from her beloved sister Nettie for decades, further sparking her rage. Empowered by her friendship with the other women, Celie curses Mister and leaves him to move to Tennessee with Shug.

On her own, Celie successfully sews pants and sells them, starting a small business. She also reconnects with her now grown-up children Adam and Olivia, whom she had long believed to be dead. The end of the novel sees Celie fully liberated – she has found her voice and inner strength, gained independence, and reunited with her lost family.

Significance as a Protagonist

Celie’s incredible transformation makes her a compelling protagonist. She starts as a silent, invisible victim unable to fight back against injustice. Through her painful journey, Celie ultimately frees herself from repression and abuse, empowered by the support and awakening provided by the women around her.

Celie’s struggles reflect the oppression faced by generations of African-American women. Her growth into an independent, self-sufficient woman reveals her resilience and inner strength in overcoming racial and gender discrimination. Celie’s story follows her path to finding her own identity, voice, and place of belonging in the world.

Alice Walker uses Celie’s perspective to illuminate the experiences of marginalized black women in the early 20th century South. By the end of the novel, Celie undergoes both a personal and political awakening, exemplifying the power of women supporting each other and the possibility of rising above one’s circumstances. The Color Purple’s narrative arc turns Celie from victim to survivor – showcasing how even the most oppressed can achieve liberation through courage, community, and self-realization.

Celie’s Relationships

Celie’s closest relationships provide the catalysts for her transformation:

Alphonso (Stepfather)

Alphonso’s repeated sexual abuse of Celie from a young age robs her of her childhood. His objectification leaves her feeling worthless. When he takes away her babies, it reinforces her feelings of powerlessness. Alphonso’s treatment of Celie scars her psyche, conditioning her to expect abuse.

Mister (Albert)

As Celie’s husband, Mister continues her subjugation through physical and emotional abuse. He provides no affection, using Celie only as an unpaid servant and farm laborer. Mister tries to reinforce Celie’s feelings of ugliness and insignificance. His cruelty further suppresses Celie’s sense of independence.

Harpo and Sofia

Mister’s children Harpo and his wife Sofia allow Celie to release some of her inner anguish. Celie advises Harpo to beat Sofia into submission, projecting her own learned helplessness. When Sofia stands up to Harpo, it plants seeds of rebellion in Celie, foreshadowing her future.

Shug Avery

Shug becomes Celie’s best friend and mentor. She values Celie for who she is. Shug teaches Celie to appreciate her body, sexuality, and inner strength. Her affection, validation, and encouragement allow Celie to reconstruct her identity and self-worth. Shug empowers Celie to leave Mister and set out on her own.


Celie’s beloved younger sister Nettie is her one source of joy early on. Nettie’s offer to care for Celie’s babies spurs Alphonso to forcibly marry Celie off instead. When Nettie comes to live with Celie and Mister, Celie dreams they will raise the children together. Nettie’s ejection from the home leaves Celie bereft. The sisters’ eventual reunion restores Celie’s family.

Key Moments of Celie’s Transformation

Year Key Moments
1910s-early 1920s -Repeated rapes and pregnancies by Alphonso
-Forced separation from her children shortly after each birth
1923 -Marries Albert “Mister” to escape Alphonso’s abuse
1924 -Shug Avery moves in, sparking Celie’s awakening
1926 – Encourages Sofia to fight back against Harpo’s abuse
1927 – Develops loving relationship with Shug
– Starts writing letters to God
1929 – Leaves Mister and moves to Tennessee
1930 – Reunites with her children


Celie, the protagonist of Alice Walker’s The Color Purple, undergoes a remarkable evolution from abused, invisible girl to independent, empowered woman over the course of the novel. Through the aid of the women in her life, Celie is able to construct her own identity and find her voice after years of subjugation. By the end, she has freed herself from oppression, established her own successful business, and reunited with her lost family. Celie’s inspirational transformation from victim to survivor reveals the power of the human spirit to overcome. Her story serves as a timeless testament to the importance of empowerment, sisterhood, and personal liberation.