Skip to Content

What color were the original Egyptian?

What color were the original Egyptian?

The question of what color the original ancient Egyptians were is a complex one without a definitive answer. Modern Egyptians exhibit a range of skin tones, from light to dark, which is a reflection of the country’s diverse genetic history. Determining the skin color of ancient Egyptians requires examining artifacts, written descriptions, and analyzing DNA from mummified remains. While there is no consensus, most evidence suggests ancient Egyptians had an olive or brown skin tone, similar to modern Egyptians. Their exact hue likely varied between individuals and changed over time as various ethnic groups settled in the region.

Artifacts Depict a Range of Skin Colors

The most obvious evidence of ancient Egyptian skin color can be found in wall paintings, tomb decorations, and sculpture. These artifacts depict Egyptians with a diverse range of skin tones, from very dark to very light. However, the actual pigments used may not accurately represent true skin color. Artists often followed cultural conventions and had limited pigment choices. For example, men were often depicted with reddish-brown skin, symbolizing time spent working outdoors, while women had lighter yellow skin, representing more leisure time indoors. Despite these limitations, artifacts provide an important record of Egyptian diversity.

Written Descriptions Varied

Another source of evidence is ancient written descriptions of Egyptians by themselves and other cultures. Egyptian texts often reference skin colors in vague symbolic terms related to elements like gold or soil. Some Greek and Roman writers described Egyptians as having dark skin, while others called them olive-skinned. Overall, ancient written accounts describe Egyptians ranging in color from dark brown to fair skinned. However, it is difficult to interpret these accounts since ideas of race and color were not defined as they are today.

Mummified Remains Reveal Genetic History

Perhaps the best way to determine ancient Egyptian skin color is by analyzing DNA from mummified remains. Although mummification was practiced for millennia in Egypt, intact remains with usable DNA are relatively rare. Most studies have focused on royal mummies, who may not represent the general population. However, genetic analysis has revealed clues about the Egyptians’ ancestral roots.

DNA shows ancient Egyptians shared close connections to populations originating in the Near East, the Levant, and Anatolia. This indicates Egyptians likely had olive to brown skin for most of their early history. But Egypt’s location at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe also meant a continuous mixing with various peoples. After the Roman conquest, increased trade and immigration led to greater genetic diversity and a wider range in skin tones.

Skin Color Varied Over Time and Location

Modern scholars conclude ancient Egyptian skin color was never uniform across the population. Skin tones likely ranged from dark brown to olive brown during most periods, with foreign invasions and trade relationships introducing greater diversity. Skin color also varied between social classes, with nobles having lighter skin than laborers. And regions may have differed, with Upper Egypt possibly fairer than the Nile Delta. But overall, an olive to brown hue most accurately represents the majority of ancient Egyptians.

Time Period Dominant Skin Color
Predynastic Egypt Olive to brown
Old Kingdom Olive to brown
Middle Kingdom Olive to brown
New Kingdom Olive to light brown
Late Period Olive to brown
Ptolemaic Kingdom Olive to brown
Roman Egypt Olive to dark brown


Modern techniques allow us to piece together an informed picture of ancient Egyptian skin color. Artifacts, texts, and DNA evidence point to a diverse range of hues, but broadly indicate ancient Egyptians had olive to brown skin. Their exact shade varied over time and between individuals, shaped by Egypt’s location, conquests, and interactions with neighboring cultures. There was never one unified skin color, but the many shades of ancient Egyptians represent the rich genetic tapestry of the ancient world.


[1] Tyldesley, J. (1995). Daughters of Isis: Women of ancient Egypt. Penguin UK.

[2] David, R. (2000). The ancient Egyptians: Religious beliefs and practices. Sussex Academic Press.

[3] Carroll, S. T. (1986). Descriptions of the ancient Egyptians. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 72(1), 199-201.

[4] Irish, J. D. (2006). Who were the ancient Egyptians? Dental affinities among Neolithic through postdynastic peoples. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 129(4), 529-543.

[5] Manniche, L. (1989). An ancient Egyptian herbal. University of Texas Press.

[6] Zakrzewski, S. R. (2007). Population continuity or population change: Formation of the ancient Egyptian state. American Journal of Physical Anthropology: The Official Publication of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 132(4), 501-509.

[7] Hawass, Z., Gad, Y. Z., Ismail, S., Khairat, R., Fathalla, D., Hasan, N., … & Gaballah, F. (2010). Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun’s family. Jama, 303(7), 638-647.

[8] Smith, S. T. (2006). Ways of seeing: Color terminology and race in the ancient Mediterranean world. Greece & Rome, 53(1), 40-60.

[9] Dee, M., Wengrow, D., Shortland, A., Stevenson, A., Brock, F., Flink, L. G., & Bronk Ramsey, C. (2013). An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 469(2159), 20130395.

[10] Keita, S. O., & Kittles, R. A. (1999). The persistence of racial thinking and the myth of racial divergence. American anthropologist, 101(3), 534-544.