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What are symbols in the book The Color Purple?

What are symbols in the book The Color Purple?

The Color Purple by Alice Walker is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel that follows the life of Celie, a young black woman living in the American South during the 1930s. First published in 1982, the novel deals with difficult themes like racism, sexism, domestic violence, and incest. Despite the serious nature of the book, it also expresses messages of hope through the power of love, spirituality, and personal growth. An important part of the novel is Walker’s use of symbols. These recurring images and objects take on metaphorical meanings that reveal deeper truths about characters, relationships, and Celie’s quest for independence. Looking at some of the key symbols in The Color Purple can provide a richer understanding of the story and its powerful messages.

The Color Purple

The most prominent symbol in the novel is contained within the title. The color purple takes on several symbolic meanings over the course of the story. At first, purple represents the pain and suffering Celie endures in her life. She is abused by her father and then her husband, Mr. _______. Celie’s early life is filled with tragedy and sorrow. The color purple evokes these sad emotions and associations. However, later in the novel, the meaning shifts as Celie finds community and sisterhood with a group of strong female friends. These connections bring joy, laughter, and comfort back into Celie’s life. Purple begins to represent freedom, equality, spirituality, and sisterly love. By the end, it has transformed into a color of triumph, self-reliance, and independence. The evolving symbolic nature of the color purple traces Celie’s own remarkable personal transformation.


Another important symbol is the letters that Celie writes to God and her sister Nettie. Celie begins writing letters as a way to cope with the trauma and isolation of her daily life. The letters represent Celie’s private thoughts, desires, and identity, which she must keep hidden from those who oppress her. They become Celie’s only outlet for self-expression and companionship. Through her written correspondence with Nettie, Celie also discovers the truth about her painful past. Nettie’s letters open Celie’s eyes to years of deceit. Overall, Celie’s letters symbolize her quest for knowledge, connection, and the ability to shape her own life story through narration. They ultimately help set her free.


Pants, specifically pants that Celie makes and sells, become an important symbol of her independence and power. For most of her life, Celie has conformed to traditional gender roles that restrict her choices. After leaving her husband, Celie realizes she needs to support herself financially. She taps into her talent for sewing by making and selling pants for men and women. The pants represent freedom from constrictive skirts and dresses, as well as women’s changing social roles. For Celie, making pants becomes an act of self-reliance and independence. The pants allow her to shape her own economic destiny. She even stands up to Mr. ______ by refusing to make him pants, claiming she makes them only for those she wants to. The pants symbolize Celie’s personal and economic liberation.

The Color Red

While purple represents Celie, the color red is closely associated with her stepson Harpo’s wife Sofia. Sofia wears red to show she is “in a bad mood” and doesn’t want to be bothered. Her defiant choice of color signals her fiery, strong-willed personality that refuses to bow to convention. Sofia’s red clothing contrasts with the expectations for women to wear soft, muted colors and represents her boldness and temper. After Sofia is unjustly jailed for slapping the mayor, she is made to do hard labor wearing a red dress as punishment, representing her resistance being forcibly suppressed. Overall, the color red symbolizes Sofia’s willful assertiveness and her refusal to be dominated by others.


Nature, specifically flowers and the outdoors, recurs throughout the novel as a symbol of life, fertility, and freedom. Celie finds beauty and comfort in the natural world that contrasts with the pain and confinement of her daily life. Appreciating nature reminds Celie that a world exists beyond her own suffering. Celie’s connection to the land increases when she moves out of Mr. ______’s house. She revels in working outdoors in her own garden, taking joy from the beauty around her. Nature represents the persistent force of life and hope that Celie draws strength from. It nurtures her spirit and encourages her growth just as Celie cultivates flowers. Nature provides solace, healing, and a sense of possibility that inspires Celie’s transformation.

Sewing and Quilting

The acts of sewing and quilting represent community and the power of shared female experience. The quilt Celie creates connects her to the important women in her life, from her beloved sister Nettie to her husband’s mistress Shug Avery. These bonds provide Celie with support she’s never known. Sewing also allows Celie to tell stories by incorporating different fabrics with meaning. Her quilts not only bring women together, they keep alive personal histories that others might overlook or try to suppress. Sewing helps Celie preserve her version of her life story and the stories of those she loves. It represents the importance of shared experience and appreciating the uniqueness of each individual story.

Symbol Meaning
The Color Purple Celie’s suffering then freedom and independence
Letters Celie’s self-expression and quest for knowledge
Pants Celie’s self-reliance and economic freedom
The Color Red Sofia’s bold, defiant spirit
Nature Beauty, life, freedom from oppression
Sewing/Quilting Female community and shared experience


In The Color Purple, Alice Walker skillfully uses symbols like colors, clothing, nature, and crafts to represent deeper thematic meanings. They creatively convey Celie’s struggles, relationships, and her journey of transformation from victim to independent woman. Examining these symbols enriches understanding of the novel’s complex characters, brutal world, moments of hope, and ultimately Celie’s empowering personal growth. The symbols speak to Celie’s resilient spirit and humanity despite enduring unspeakable abuse. Though Celie faces painful oppression, the symbols reveal she is much more than her suffering. Walker’s bold, moving novel and iconic symbols still resonate with audiences decades later.